ZIVUSENI - S & T involved in Gauteng's major Poverty Alleviation Programme
Moagi Ntsime describes S&T's role in Gauteng's leading anti-poverty programme.
The Gauteng Executive Council, in response to the need to provide short,
medium and long-term job creation opportunities in the province, initiated a
major poverty alleviation programme. The programme is to be implemented over a
five-year period and is called Zivuseni, a Zulu word for uplift, develop or
In order to implement, manage and monitor the programme, the Provincial
Department of Public Transport, Roads and Works (responsible for overseeing the
programme) contracted the Independent Development Trust (IDT) to manage the
implementation of the programme. In order to carry out this mandate the IDT in
turn contracted service providers to assist with implementation. Strategy and
Tactics was contracted by the IDT firstly to develop and targeting expenditure
formula to spread the budget allocated equitably, and secondly to provide
on-going monitoring and evaluation services during the implementation process.
What is Zivuseni? Zivuseni has two main objectives
- To alleviate poverty by promoting self-reliance through activities that
emphasise renewal and maintenance of community assets
- Building or developing local capacity through transferring skills by
training local communities
Zivuseni is aimed at addressing poverty in Gauteng. The programme aims to
achieve this by mobilizing the public and private sectors alongside
community-based resources. Furthermore, the programme aims to develop small and
emerging contractors who have the potential to grow into viable and sustainable
businesses with potential to generate long-term job opportunities.
province is predominantly urban with many poverty pockets.
The programme is also targeting some of these poverty pockets as focal areas
that require special intervention strategies in order to address unemployment.
The geographic target areas in Gauteng includes three Metropolitan areas and six
municipalities: Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, Tshwane Metropolitan Council,
Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Council, Sedibeng District Municipality, Metsweding
District Municipality and West Rand District Municipality.
pockets prioritized for the programme are:
- COSMO CITY,
- WEST RAND (IN PARTICULAR KAGISO),
- SEDIBENG (IN PARTICULAR HEIDELBERG; HEIDELBERG FARMS; AND SEBOKENG),
- JOHANNESBURG (IN PARTICULAR SOWETO, ORANGE FARM, ELDORADO PARK AND PARTS OF
- TSHWANE METROPOLITAN AREA (SOSHANGUVE AND PRETORIA NORTH),
- EDUCATION ACTION ZONES (GAUTENG ON-LINE SCHOOLS), AND
- NEW AND INFORMAL SETTLEMENTS IN THE PROVINCE.
S&T's role in Zivuseni
As already indicated, S & T was commissioned to develop a poverty index
to profile the level of poverty in the six municipalities listed above.
Secondly, on the basis of the poverty index and population figures for each
municipality, we were asked to develop a budget allocation model to guide budget
allocation to each municipality for the implementation of the programme.
Parallel to the process of developing an expenditure model for the programme,
S &T partners Moagi Ntsime and Ross Jennings assisted the programme manager
with developing some of the implementation policy guidelines. A number of
research design inputs were needed during the planning phase of the programme,
which drew on local and international experience and practice.
For example, before decisions were taken regarding employment targets,
project types, the number of women to be employed and so on, specific desk top
studies and face-to-face discussions with relevant stakeholders were undertaken
to ensure that appropriate policy decisions were made with regard to Zivuseni.
Zivuseni's focus is on poverty alleviation and most of the strategies are
based on the status of current poverty pockets. In order to effectively evaluate
the programme, it was important that appropriate data were collected and
analysed as the basis of the implementation strategy. One of S&T's
deliverables is to conduct a brief and focused baseline study for the programme.
Currently, existing (baseline-relevant) data are being analysed,
including October Household Survey data, as well as in-depth interviews with key
policy makers involved in the programme. The purpose of this exercise is to
ensure that the province and poverty pockets are profiled in terms of poverty
Designing a monitoring system
The programme has identified certain areas of focus, finalised
organisatioinal arrangements and reporting lines during implementation. These
include indicators to be monitored during implementation. In order to report
consistently about the progress and performance of the programme at each level,
it is important that monitoring arrangements are designed and maintained.
Another of S&T's deliverables in the programme is to ensure that there is
a monitoring system in place and that it is maintained. Also, as part of on
going reporting monitoring data would have to be analysed regularly and where
problems are identified through the system we have to ensure that managers can
implement corrective measures immediately.
Case studies and diagnostic evaluations
The role of M&E is central to the efficient and effective implementation
of the programme. With an effectively functioning monitoring system the
programme team will be better equipped to monitor activities related to the
programme. It is for this reason that some short turn -round evaluation
exercises, for example, case studies and diagnostic evaluation exercises, are
planned for the implementation phase. However, it is important to note that
these rapid evaluative activities will not necessarily be representative. Quick
turn-around exercises are normally focused around emerging key development
trends and challenges facing the programme.
Programme management and support function
The Programme Management Team (PMT) within the programme office was
established to manage the implementation of the programme. The Department of
Public Transport, Roads and Works and the IDT constitutes the PMT.
Representatives of outside service providers contracted by the IDT to render
on-going support and assistance to the Programme Manager are also represented in
the PMT (those responsible for social facilitation and so on).
As one of these service providers, S & T serves on the PMT. This is to
ensure that there is close linkage and synergy between implementation and
policy. It is important that the role of monitoring of the activities of the
programme is part of all levels of programme management. For example, when there
is a need to steer the implementation process in a certain direction, this will
be better understood if the ongoing analysis of monitoring data were factored
into all key operational discussions within the programme.
Furthermore, S&T (represented by Moagi Ntsime) serves in the Programme
Steering Committee. The PMS is responsible for broad strategic issues within the
programme. It is within the PMS monthly meetings that key policy issues and
frameworks are discussed and where appropriate corrective actions are suggested.
As such, members of the PMS are expected to advise the programme on critical
issues that impact on implementation. This role is an important part of the
programme support and guidance.
S&T has consistently worked both sides of the line - undertaking applied,
policy and other research as well as evaluations on the one hand, and serving on
implementing teams for development programmes on the other. It is by getting our
hands dirty in this way that we can fuse our different functions and stop either
from losing focus.