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This article is taken from the March 2002 Phatlalatsa newsletter

 

Targeting for the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation Programme

S&T partner Ross Jennings is an expert in targeting for poverty alleviation programmes. Here he describes a recent Gauteng-based targeting exercise.

Targeting for the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation Programme image

The Gauteng Executive Council, in response to the need to provide short, medium and long-term job creation opportunities in the province, is embarking on a labour-intensive job creation programme, the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation Programme. The main objectives of the programme are to alleviate poverty and address the high levels of unemployment in the province. To maximise the impact of the Programme requires detailed information on poverty and unemployment in the province for the programme to target areas and groups of greatest need.

S&T was commissioned to develop a targeting strategy and formula for the Programme.

THERE WERE TWO KEY DELIVERABLES:

  • The development of a poverty index to profile poverty in the six municipalities: Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, Tshwane Metropolitan Council, Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Council, Sedibeng District Municipality, Metsweding District Municipality, and West Rand District Municipality.
  • On the basis of the poverty index and population figures for each municipality, the development of a budget allocation model to guide allocations to each municipality for the implementation of the programme.

To profile poverty in each of the municipalities, poverty-relevant data were taken from the 1997 October Household Survey. A poverty score for each municipality was calculated using a range of items that included rates of unemployment and literacy, as well as residents' access to basic services and food security. A high score corresponds to high levels of poverty.

Average levels of poverty across the six municipalities differed markedly, with levels of poverty highest in Metsweding and Sedibeng District Municipalities. If the allocation of the Zivuseni budget was based solely on poverty levels, Metsweding and Sedibeng District Councils would receive the largest proportions of the allocation.

However, these municipalities have very small populations when compared with some of the other areas, and an allocation of the budget based solely on these poverty scores would be inappropriate.

For a more appropriate allocation of the budget, the poverty scores were weighted by the population figures for each municipality. Population figures for each area were obtained from the Municipal Demarcation Board. The combined poverty/population score - which takes into account levels of poverty as well as numbers of people living in each area - was then used to apportion the budget for the Programme. As the graph shows, this combined poverty/population score resulted in Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni Metropolitan Councils receiving the largest allocations.

It is important to realise that this model guides allocation of resources to municipal level. For the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation Programme to be effective and efficient in targeting poverty in the province requires that within each municipality, an integrated development plan or process identifies poverty pockets for the Programme to target.

 

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