Targeting for the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation ProgrammeS&T partner Ross Jennings is an expert in targeting for poverty alleviation programmes. Here he describes a recent Gauteng-based targeting exercise.
The Gauteng Executive Council, in response to the need to provide short,
medium and long-term job creation opportunities in the province, is embarking
on a labour-intensive job creation programme, the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation
Programme. The main objectives of the programme are to alleviate poverty
and address the high levels of unemployment in the province. To maximise
the impact of the Programme requires detailed information on poverty and
unemployment in the province for the programme to target areas and groups
of greatest need.
S&T was commissioned to develop a targeting strategy
and formula for the Programme.
THERE WERE TWO KEY DELIVERABLES:
- The development of a poverty index to profile poverty in the six municipalities:
Johannesburg Metropolitan Council, Tshwane Metropolitan Council, Ekurhuleni
Metropolitan Council, Sedibeng District Municipality, Metsweding District
Municipality, and West Rand District Municipality.
- On the basis of the poverty index and population figures for each
municipality, the development of a budget allocation model to guide
allocations to each municipality for the implementation of the programme.
To profile poverty in each of the municipalities, poverty-relevant data
were taken from the 1997 October Household Survey. A poverty score for
each municipality was calculated using a range of items that included
rates of unemployment and literacy, as well as residents' access to basic
services and food security. A high score corresponds to high levels of
Average levels of poverty across the six municipalities differed markedly,
with levels of poverty highest in Metsweding and Sedibeng District Municipalities.
If the allocation of the Zivuseni budget was based solely on poverty levels,
Metsweding and Sedibeng District Councils would receive the largest proportions
of the allocation.
However, these municipalities have very small populations when compared
with some of the other areas, and an allocation of the budget based solely
on these poverty scores would be inappropriate.
For a more appropriate allocation of the budget, the poverty scores were
weighted by the population figures for each municipality. Population figures
for each area were obtained from the Municipal Demarcation Board. The
combined poverty/population score - which takes into account levels of
poverty as well as numbers of people living in each area - was then used
to apportion the budget for the Programme. As the graph shows, this combined
poverty/population score resulted in Johannesburg and Ekurhuleni Metropolitan
Councils receiving the largest allocations.
It is important to realise that this model guides allocation of resources
to municipal level. For the Zivuseni Poverty Alleviation Programme to
be effective and efficient in targeting poverty in the province requires
that within each municipality, an integrated development plan or process
identifies poverty pockets for the Programme to target.